Alcohol is a legal depressant, a liquid obtained by fermentation of carbohydrates by yeast or by distillation. There are many different types of alcohol, but Ethanol (ethyl alcohol) is the type of alcohol that is used to make alcoholic beverages.
The use of Alcohol may not become a problem when used moderately. Moderate use of alcohol is defined as up to two drinks per day for men and one drink per day for women and older people. A “drink” is defined as 12 oz. of beer or a wine cooler, a 5 oz. glass of wine, or 1.5 oz. of 80 proof distilled spirits.
The NIAAA (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism) states that moderate alcohol use may be beneficial to users. Studies have shown that moderate drinkers are less likely to die from one form of heart disease than are people who do not drink any alcohol or who drink more. It is believed that these smaller amounts of alcohol help protect against heart disease by changing the blood’s chemistry, thus reducing the risk of blood clots in the heart’s arteries.
However, some people shouldn’t drink at all. The list includes:
- Women who are pregnant or trying to become pregnant
- People who plan to drive or engage in other activities that require alertness and skill such as using high-speed machinery
- People taking certain over-the-counter medications
- People with medical conditions that can be made worse by drinking
- Recovering alcoholics
- People under the age of 21
What Are Amphetamines?
One of the most common Amphetamines today is known as Speed. Amphetamines or Speed, as I will call it from now on, are synthetic stimulants which have been available since the 1930s. In the 1950s and 60s it was commonly prescribed by doctors for depression and as an appetite suppressant.
It usually comes as a grey, white, or dirty white, pale pink or yellow powder, and is often contained in a ‘wrap’ which is a folded piece of paper that looks like a very small envelope. Illicit tablets containing amphetamine are available, but are much less common than the powder form of the drug. This drug can be snorted, swallowed, injected or smoked, it has also been known to be mixed with liquid and drank. Other street names for this drug are Whizz, Billy, Uppers and Sulphate.Amphetamines include drugs like Dextroamphetamine, Benzedrine, Ritalin and many other chemicals. Amphetamines were originally developed as a treatment for asthma, sleep disorders (narcolepsy) and hyperactivity. Many of the effects of amphetamines are similar to cocaine.Amphetamine commonly used today is illegally manufactured, as opposed to amphetamines diverted from legitimate sources. The amphetamine sulphate powder is ‘cut’ with other substances (e.g. brick dust, scouring powder, sugars, caffeine), and purity levels are often only three to five per cent.
Effects And Risks Of Taking Amphetamines
- Effects of Amphetamines: –
- Increased heart rate
- Increased blood pressure
- Reduced appetite
- Dilation of the pupils F
- eelings of happiness and power
- Reduced fatigue
- Risks of Amphetamines: –
- Paranoid psychosis
- Hallucinations Violent and aggressive behavior
- Weight loss
- Mixing Viagra with Amphetamines increase risk of heart problems
Treatment and Rehabilitation
Treatment: This is an organized means of assisting drug dependent persons either in a hospital setting or outside the hospital with the aim of making the client or patient recover his or her normal status and state of health. The aim is to stabilize the drug dependent persons under a well planned treatment programme. In fact, in the context of drug abuse, the World Health Organization defines treatment as: “The process that begins when psychoactive substance abusers come into contact with a health care provider or any other community service and may continue through a succession of specific interventions until the highest attainable level of health or well being is reached”. Treatment aims to manage the bio-psycho-social problems resulting from drug abuse, in order to improve or maximize personal functioning and social integration.
Rehabilitation: This is a process of improving the residual functional capacity of a drug dependent person such that the individual can resume his or her expected role within the society. Due to the adverse effects of drug abuse on the dependent user, rehabilitation assists the treated individual to recover those diminished or lost capacities caused by drug dependency. Rehabilitation aims at assisting the drug dependent individual reintegrate into the community as a productive person.
Treatment and rehabilitation gives drug dependent persons a sense of belonging, that he is not rejected by the society and that he can be helped. More so, a treated drug dependent person will not recruit others into drugs; hence treatment is needed for prevention.
In line with this NDLEA carries out treatment and rehabilitation of drug dependent persons in the NDLEA national headquarters and all the 36 state commands including FCT-Abuja. The public are advised to visit any of the commands and contacts as provided in this website.
Ways by which NDLEA carries out the task of treatment and rehabilitation include:
• Evaluation, Assessment/diagnosis
• Combination therapy
• Family Therapy
• Drug Education
• Teaching on Coping Skills
• Relapse Prevention (Aftercare/Follow up)
NDLEA thorough the directorate of drug demand reduction served as the focal point for TREATNET 11 project in Nigeria from January 1, 2008 – December 31, 2011. TREATNET is the acronyms for the network of drug dependence treatment providers globally. It is an initiative of the United Nations office on Drugs and Crime. The training is based on the TREATNET Training Package (TTP) which is in three volumes: Volume A, Volume B and Volume C. It is a capacity building component of the global Project GLOJ71 organized by UNODC with NDLEA as focal point. It was aimed at improving the technical capacity for the provision of diversified and effective drug treatment and rehabilitation services, including their capacity to support HIV/AIDS prevention and care. It consists of the provision of evidence based treatment, provision of technical assistance, identification and dissemination of good practices while exploring the possibilities for maintaining and enhancing field level activities.
The training programme commenced in May 2009 with the training in Mombassa, Kenya of Master Trainers who subsequently trained 6 trainers from each of the participating countries. These countries include Cote D’Ivoire, Kenya, Mozambique, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Tanzania and Zambia.
In Nigeria, a total of three hundred and seventy-four (374) professionals participated in the TREATNET 11 training which took place in 2012 in four centres namely: Neuropsychiatric Hospital Aro, Abeokuta Ogun State, Neuropsychiatric Hospital Barnawa, Kaduna Sate, Federal Neuropsychiatric Hospital Calabar, Cross River State and Federal Neuropsychiatric hospital Maiduguri, Borno State. These professionals comprises of Counsellors, Psychologists, Social Workers, Nurses, Medical Doctors, Pharmacists, Educators, and Occupational therapists among others.